2016年簡報第三期
2016-06-28 15:29:40   來源:   評論:0 點擊:

 中國貿促會經貿摩擦海外常年法律顧問(美國)2016年簡報第三期  總第六期
 
2016年2月3日
 
美國奧斯頓律師事務所  北京市高朋律師事務所
 
 
簡報摘要:本期簡報包括六個部分。第一部分為中美貿易政策方面的最新新聞,主要概述美國力圖調整國防預算以對抗中國軍事力量的發展;第二部分為中美貿易與經濟方面的最新新聞,主要內容包括重要的美國商業協會美中貿易全國委員會要求美國在2016年12月之后給予中國市場經濟地位、中國和美國結束中美第24輪雙邊投資協定談判并承諾在2016年加快談判、學術研究McCoy項目指出中國三大國有銀行卷入假冒奢侈品交易;第三部分為貿易救濟和國際貿易領域的法律發展,主要介紹美國近期啟動的貿易救濟調查、美國對中國正在調查的貿易救濟案件的最新動態、美國國際貿易法院近期就美國對中國的貿易救濟調查所進行的相關訴訟的裁決;第四部分為美國法律發展,主要內容包括美國將于2月4日簽署TPP以及美國總統奧巴馬與美國國會眾參兩院領導關于TPP批準談判失敗、美國眾議院籌款委員會表示將對美國與中國和印度的交涉進行積極監督;第五部分為世界貿易組織方面的最新新聞,主要內容包括中國在《WTO信息技術協定》下獲得較長期限的關稅逐步廢止資格、中國就其被指控的農業補貼通知WTO、中國與海灣合作委員會重啟自由貿易協定談判;第六部分為近期的智囊機構和學術研究,主要內容為紐約大學計算機科學系18個月的學術研究表明中國三大主要國有銀行卷入假冒奢侈品交易。
 
 

 
一、U.S.- China Politics
中美貿易政策
 
U.S. Seeks to Bolster Defense Budget to Counter China: U.S. Defense Secretary Ashton Carter outlined priority U.S. security concerns in a speech in Washington on February 2. While Russia was identified as a primary security threat to U.S. interests in Europe, Carter noted significant adjustments in the U.S. defense budget were necessitated by China’s increasing and asymmetrical gains in military power. The U.S. defense chief cited in particular China’s development of “weapons and ways of war that seek to achieve their objectives rapidly” and before the U.S. may respond, including its ship killing missiles and electronic warfare. Carter’s new $582.7 billion defense budget request calls for major spending on cyber security, submarines, new robotic boats and underwater vessels as well as new missile interceptors to be installed on American warships.
美國力圖支持國防預算以對抗中國:美國國防部長Ashton Carter于2月2日在華盛頓進行的一個演講中概述美國主要的安全問題。雖然俄羅斯被認為是美國在歐洲利益的主要安全威脅,但是Carter指出中國在軍事力量上的不斷增長及不對稱的增加迫使美國國防預算做出重大調整。美國國防部長特別指出中國在武器和戰爭方式上的迅速發展,以及反艦導彈和電子戰爭技術的發展。Carter最新的5827億美元的國防預算主要用于網絡安全、潛艇、新式機器人船、水下艦艇以及安裝在美國戰艦上的新式導彈攔截器。
 
Carter also renewed criticisms of Chinese naval expansion in the South China Sea, and claimed that Chinese actions had a destabilizing effect on the region. Carter noted that a major result of Chinese policy has been to cause many Asian nations to restore strong security ties to the United States, including Vietnam, Australia, the Philippines and Japan.
Carter還重申對于中國在南海進行海軍擴張的譴責,稱中國的舉動破壞該地區的穩定。Carter指出,中國南海政策的一個重要后果就是使得許多亞洲國家重新恢復與美國的緊密安全關系,這些亞洲國家包括越南、澳大利亞、菲律賓和日本。
 
For Chinese industry, particularly Chinese investors, the deepening security competition in Asia may lead to heightened U.S. scrutiny of Chinese investment in sectors linked to the U.S. defense industrial base, and will contribute to growing political alarm in the U.S. Congress over China’s strategic objectives in Asia.
對于中國產業,尤其是中國投資者,不斷加深的在亞洲的安全競爭可能導致增強美國對于中國在與美國國防工業基地相關領域投資的嚴格審查,同時將導致美國國會對中國在亞洲戰略目標的不斷增加的政治擔憂。
 
 
二、U.S.-China Trade & Economics
中美貿易與經濟
 
Leading U.S. Business Group Calls for Market Status for China: The U.S.-China Business Council (USCBC) has recommended the United States grant China market economy status in antidumping cases in accordance with the terms of China’s WTO accession. USCBC released on January 20 its 2016 Board of Directors' Statement of Priorities in the U.S.-China Commercial Relationship, observing that the change in stats would serve to build confidence and help to ensure mutually beneficial commercial relations. USCBC becomes the first major trade association to state its position on the market status issue, and the Council argues that the terms of China’s WTO accession do not provide the legal flexibility that would allow countries to continue to deny China market status treatment after December, 2016.
重要的美國商業協會要求給予中國市場經濟地位:美中貿易全國委員會(USCBC)建議美國根據中國入世議定書的相關條款,在美國對中國的反傾銷調查中給予中國市場經濟地位。USCBC于1月20日發布其2016年董事會關于中美貿易關系中重點問題的聲明,指出給與中國市場經濟地位將有利于建立信心并保證雙邊互利的貿易關系。USCBC是第一個表明其對于中國市場經濟地位所持觀點的重要貿易協會,其認為,中國入世議定書的相關條款并未提供法律上的彈性能夠允許WTO成員方在2016年12月以后繼續否認中國的市場經濟地位。
 
BIT Negotiations Conclude 24th Round, Speed Promised: China and the U.S. concluded the 24th round of negotiations toward a bilateral investment treaty (BIT) on January 27 in Beijing. Secretary of State John Kerry and Chinese Foreign Minister Wang Yi pledged to “accelerate” negotiations during 2016. Major difficulties in the negotiation continue, however, as this BIT marks the first time China has agreed to a “negative list” approach to negotiations. Analysts speculate that Foreign Minister Wang’s statement is in part directed at various Chinese government ministries now slowly working through the many policy and political considerations that must be undertaken in order for China to formulate a comprehensive negative list.
第24輪雙邊投資協定談判結束,承諾加快談判:中國和美國于1月27日在北京結束中美第24輪雙邊投資協定談判。美國國務卿John Kerry和中國外交部部長王毅承諾在2016年加快談判。談判中的主要難點依然存在,但是,本次雙邊投資協定坦帕是中國首次同意通過負面清單方式進行談判。分析家們推測中國外交部部長王毅的言論部分地針對許多中國政府部門制定有關中國制定全面的負面清單所必須遵守的相關政策進程較慢。
 
Academic Study Links Major Chinese Banks to Counterfeiting Scam: McCoy’s project is a collaboration with Florida attorney Stephen Gaffigan and four of the world’s largest luxury goods brands—which decline to be named. The Bank of China, the Bank of Communications, and Agricultural Bank of China handled 97 percent of 300 fake goods purchases made during McCoy’s project, which has been running for nearly 18 months. All three are owned by the Chinese government.
學術研究指出中國主要的銀行卷入假冒奢侈品交易:McCoy項目是與佛羅里達律師Stephen Gaffigan以及四大全球最大的不愿透露品牌名稱的奢侈品品牌的一個合作。在長達近18個月的McCoy項目調查中,300次假冒商品購買中,有97%是由中國銀行、交通銀行和中國農業銀行處理的。
 
 
三、Trade Remedies and Legal Developments in International Trade
貿易救濟和國際貿易領域的法律發展
 
Commerce to Commence Sunset Reviews: Effective February 1st, the U.S. Department of Commerce (“DOC”) will conduct sunset reviews on antidumping duty (“AD”) and countervailing duty (“CVD”) orders placed on Magnesium Metal (A-570-896) and Porcelain-On-Steel Cooking Ware (A-570-506), both from China. Concurrently, the International Trade Commission will conduct its Five-Year Review.
美國商務部進行的日落復審調查:2月1日,美國商務部開始對來自中國的金屬鎂和搪瓷廚具進行反傾銷和反補貼日落復審調查。同時,美國國際貿易委員會也將進行相應案件的日落復審調查。
 
Results Announced in Polyester Staple Fiber Review: DOC has concluded its administrative review of the AD order on certain polyester staple fiber from China. DOC determined that Zhaoqing Tifo New Fibre Co., Ltd. failed to establish its eligibility for a separate rate for the period of review, and that Takayasu Industrial Co., Ltd has no reviewable entries.
美國商務部對華聚酯短纖作出反傾銷行政復審終裁:美國商務部對華聚酯短纖作出反傾銷行政復審終裁,肇慶天富新合纖有限公司(Zhaoqing Tifo New Fibre Co., Ltd.)未能符合單獨稅率企業要求;另外,Takayasu Industrial Co., Ltd在調查期內無可審查交易。
 
Final Determination in ITC Carbon Brick Review: The U.S. International Trade Commission (“ITC”) announced on January 27 that it will not revoke the current AD and CVD orders on certain magnesia carbon bricks from China and Mexico on the grounds that such a revocation would likely lead to “continuation or recurrence of material injury to an industry in the United States within a reasonably foreseeable time”.
美國國際貿易委員會對華鎂碳磚作出反傾銷和反補貼日落復審終裁:美國國際貿易委員會于1月27日宣布,其不會撤銷現存的對來自中國和墨西哥的鎂碳磚的反傾銷和反補貼措施,因為撤銷現存的反傾銷和反補貼措施將很可能在一個合理和可預見的時間里導致對美國產業的實質損害的繼續和再發。
 
Preliminary Determination in Hydrofluorocarbon Blends and Components: On February 1st, DOC issued the preliminary determination of the AD investigation of Hydrofluorocarbon Blends and Components Thereof from China (POI: 10/1/2014-3/31/2015). The final determination is expected on June 15 of this year.
美國商務部對華氫氟烴制冷劑作出反傾銷初裁:2月1日,美國商務部對華氫氟烴制冷劑作出反傾銷初裁(調查期:2014年10月1日-2015年3月31日)。反傾銷終裁將于2016年6月15日作出。
 
Amorphous Silica Fabric Investigation Instituted: As of January 26th, the ITC has commenced its AD and CVD investigations into imports of certain amorphous silica fabric from China, following a January 20th petition pertaining thereto. ITC’s preliminary determination is currently due by March 7th of this year.
美國國際貿易委員會對華非晶態二氧化硅織物啟動反傾銷和反補貼調查:1月26日,根據1月20日所提交的申請,美國國際貿易委員會對華非晶態二氧化硅織物啟動反傾銷和反補貼調查。美國國際貿易委員會將于3月7日前作出初裁。
 
Preliminary Results in Copper Pipe Sunset Review: DOC has preliminarily found that a revocation of the AD orders on seamless refined copper pipe and tube from China and Mexico would likely lead to the continuation of dumping at levels previously deemed unacceptable. . Final determination forthcoming.
美國商務部對華無縫精煉銅管材作出反傾銷日落復審初裁:美國商務部在初裁中裁定,若取消對來自中國和墨西哥的無縫精煉銅管材的反傾銷措施,涉案產品對美國國內產業的損害將會繼續發生。即將作出終裁。
 
Final CVD Determination for Uncoated Paper: DOC has reached a final affirmative CVD determination, reporting that countervailable subsidies are being provided to producers and exporters of certain uncoated paper from China (POI 1/1/2014-12/31-2014).
美國商務部對華非涂布紙反補貼終裁:美國商務部公布對華非涂布紙的反補貼終裁,裁定來自中國的非涂布紙的生產商和出口商被給予可適用反補貼措施的補貼(調查期:2014年1月日-2014年12月31日)。
 
Personnel Change at ITC Announced: Michael Anderson has been designated as the new Director, Office of Investigations at the United States International Trade Commission. Per the ITC’s announcement, Anderson will “direct the planning and conduct of the USITC’s import injury investigations under the antidumping and countervailing duty provisions of the Tariff Act of 1930, the global safeguard provisions of the Trade Act of 1974, and other import injury statutes.” Anderson brings substantial expertise and leadership experience to the position. He has served in the capacity of Acting Director of the USITC Office of Industries since March of 2015, as the Chief of the Advanced Technology and Machinery Division in the Office of Industries from 2005 to 2015, and in various capacities as an economist for the ITC from 1991 to 2005.
美國國際貿易委員會的人事變動:Michael Anderson被任命為美國國際貿易委員會調查辦公室主任。根據美國國際貿易委員會的公告,Anderson將指導美國國際貿易委員會根據1930關稅法關于反傾銷和反補貼調查的相關規定、1974年貿易法關于保障措施的相關規定以及其他進口損害法規所進行的進口損害調查的計劃和實施。Anderson帶來大量的專業知識和領導經驗。其自2015年3月以來擔任美國國際貿易委員會工業辦公室的代理主任、2005-2015年間擔任工業辦公室先進技術和機械部門的領導以及在1991-2005年間在美國國際貿易委員會作為經濟學家供職于不同部門。
 
 
U.S. Court of International Trade
美國國際貿易法院
 
·                     The CIT issued a final judgment sustaining DOC’s final results of redetermination pertaining to the final results of the administrative review of the AD/CVD orders on tapered roller bearings from China (POR 2007-2008), with respect to Peer Bearing Company-Changshan. Following multiple remand orders by the CIT, specifically on the issues pertaining to the valuation and country of origin of the bearings, the CIT found the latest redetermination to be accurate.
美國國際貿易法院發布最終判決,支持美國商務部對來自圓錐滾子軸承反傾銷行政復審(調查期:2007-2008年)重新作出的終裁,修改Peer Bearing Company-Changshan的反傾銷稅率。根據美國國際貿易法院發布的發回重審的決定,尤其是關于軸承的價值和原產地的問題,美國國際貿易法院認定美國商務部最新作出的決定是準確的。
 
 
四、U.S. Regulatory and Legislative Developments
美國規章和法律發展
 
U.S. to Sign TPP February 4, Difficult Path to Ratification: The U.S. and 11 partner economies will sign the Transpacific Partnership FTA in New Zealand on February 4. On the eve of the signing, President Obama met with the Republican leaders of the U.S. Congress, Speaker of the House Paul Ryan and Senate Majority Leader Mitch McConnell, but the meeting failed to secure their support for ratification of the deal this year. Senator McConnell views the agreement as a threat to Republicans running in the November elections, while Speaker Ryan does not believe there is broad vote support among the majority House Republicans. The TPP may not be implemented by the other signatory countries until both the U.S. and Japan ratify.
美國將于2月4日簽署TPP,批準之路仍舊艱難:美國和其他11個跨太平洋伙伴關系經濟體將于2月4日在新西蘭簽署跨太平洋伙伴關系協議(TPP)。在簽署前夕,美國總統奧巴馬與美國國會共和黨領導人、眾議院議長Paul Ryan及參議院多數黨領導人Mitch McConnell會面,但是本次會面沒能夠取得他們對于在本年批準該協議的支持。參議員McConnell認為該協議將為共和黨在11月大選中的一個威脅,而眾議院議長不認為能夠獲得眾議院共和黨人的多事支持。TPP不能夠在其他簽署國中實施,直到美國和日本批準。
 
House Oversight Planning Features China and India: The House Ways and Means Committee, which shares legal jurisdiction over U.S. trade policy with the Senate Finance Committee, indicated in its annual planning “Views and Estimates” document that China and India present the most important trade “opportunities” among emerging markets worldwide, and that the House will pursue vigorous oversight over U.S. engagement with those economies. This will likely lead to additional political pressure regarding trade remedy enforcement, the question of China’s market status, and the negotiation of the BIT between the U.S. and China over the coming year.
美國眾議院積極監督與中國和印度的交涉:美國眾議院籌款委員會,其與參議院財政委員會共同擁有美國貿易政策的管轄權,在其年度計劃關注和評估文件中指出,中國和印度在全球新興市場中展現出最重要的貿易機會,眾議院將對美國與這些經濟體的交涉進行積極監督。這可能對接下來這一年的貿易救濟執行、中國的市場經濟地位問題和中美之間進行的雙邊投資談判造成額外的政治壓力。
 
 
五、World Trade Organization Developments
世界貿易組織的發展
 
China Secures Generous Tariff Phase-out Terms under ITA: China's final schedule of tariff commitments under the expanded WTO Information Technology Agreement (ITA), published January 28, indicates that Chinese negotiators secured the longest phase outs possible under the agreement for over half of the covered tariff lines. China secured either five or seven-year tariff phase outs for 266 tariff lines under the new ITA. Products covered by the seven-year phase out include medical devices, lenses and optical fibers. Five-year products include several related to semiconductor manufacture. The WTO stated that over 95 percent of global imports of the goods covered by the ITA will be duty free by the third year of implementation.
中國在ITA下獲得很長的關稅逐步廢止條款:1月28日所公布的中國在擴大《WTO信息技術協定》(ITA)項下關稅承諾的最終安排表明,中國的談判者對于超過一半的關稅稅目獲得最長的逐步取消時限。中國在ITA下獲得266個關稅稅目五年或七年逐步廢止的資格。七年逐步廢止關稅的產品包括醫療設備、透鏡和光導纖維。五年逐步廢止關稅的產品包括多種與半導體制造相關的產品。WTO稱,超過95%的ITA項下產品的全球進口將在協定實施第三年免除關稅。
 
China Notifies WTO on Alleged Agricultural Subsidies: Pursuant to WTO dispute consultations initially sought by the United States in February of 2015 in which the U.S. challenged China’s “Demonstration Bases” program for alleged illegal subsidies, China notified the WTO on February 1st that that it did not maintain or introduce any export subsidies on agricultural products during the years 2013 and 2014.
中國就其被指控的農業補貼通知WTO:根據美國于2015年2月提出的WTO爭端磋商,指控中國的示范基地項目是不符合WTO規則的補貼,中國于2月1日通知WTO中國在2013和2014年均未對農產品維持或采用任何出口補貼。
 
China and GCC Re-Launch FTA Negotiations: China and the six Middle Eastern countries comprising the Gulf Cooperation Council customs union announced on January 26 the restart of free trade negotiations after a 7 year hiatus. The parties intend to complete the regional FTA, which would be covered by Article XXIV of the GATT, by the end of 2016. China and the GCC had originally pursued negotiations from 2004-2009, reaching no conclusion.
中國與海灣合作委員會重啟自由貿易協定談判:中國和六個中東國家組成的海灣合作委員會關稅同盟于1月26日宣布重啟自由貿易協定談判。各方打算在2016年年底前完成區域性自由貿易協定,區域性自由貿易協定由GATT第24條規定。中國與海灣合作委員會在2004-2009年間曾進行相關談判,但是沒有達成協定。
 
 
六、Think Tanks and Research
智囊機構和研究
 
Academic Study Links Major Chinese Banks to Counterfeiting Scam:  An 18 month study from the computer science faculty at New York University has identified major state-owned Chinese banks as the nexus of online payments processing for the illicit global Internet market for counterfeit luxury goods. According to the study, the Bank of China, the Bank of Communications, and Agricultural Bank of China handled payments for 97 percent of counterfeit purchases covered by the study. These banks remain the subject of litigation involving luxury brand-owners, including Gucci, and credit card companies, such as Visa.
學術研究指出中國主要的銀行卷入假冒奢侈品交易:紐約大學計算機科學系18個月的研究表明,中國主要的國有銀行為全球假冒奢侈品牌商品網購提供線上支付渠道。根據該研究,有97%的假冒商品購買是由中國銀行、交通銀行和中國農業銀行處理的。這三家銀行都被奢侈品品牌(例如古琦)和信用卡公司(例如Visa)控告。

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